Industrial Diesel Engines

Industrial Diesel Engines

Industrial diesel engines are any engines that are used
for industrial purposes that run on diesel. Industrial
diesel engines are used to power a major portion of
industrial machinery, from motorbikes to bulldozers,
generators, and even forklifts and trucks. They range
in size from a few pounds to a few tons, with a various
amount of power.

The use of diesel engines is mandated by several large
organizations. All NATO machinery for example, runs on
either diesel or aviation grade kerosene. At the
current level of technology, fossil fuels, and especially
diesel are the most economical and convenient means
of supplying power to a variety of equipment and
even backup generators.

All industrial diesel engines can be either air cooled
or water cooled. The smallest engines for residential
purposes will typically provide about 10kW and cost
a few thousand USD. These smaller scale engines power
much of the mobile machinery we see around us on a
daily basis, such as trucks, farm equipment, small
boats, stationary process machinery, earth movers,
and so on.

The medium scale industrial diesel engines can provide
levels between a few hundred kW and a few thousand
kW and are sold for prices in usually the thousands
of dollars. These types are used in larger machinery
such as larger mining equipment, oil rigs, trains,
large boats, military equipment, and much more.

The largest of industrial diesel engines provide 10,000
to 80,000 kW, sold in the millions of dollars, and
are used for ultra heavy equipment, electric power
generation, and the largest of ships. Large industrial
engines can be up to 49 feet side and run on low
grade diesels. In places such as China, where there
is a high demand for de-centralized power sources,
these types of engines are often utilized.

Industral engines are classified in terms of their
speed, or RPM (Rotations Per Minute). High RPM
engines are normally used for the lighter, more common
applications, such as trucks and other types of land

Medium RPM engines are generally used for power
generation. Low RPM ranges, and high torque engines
are used for the biggest type of equipment, such as
marine equipment and applications.

For the most part, industrial diesel engines can
vary in terms of size and performance. Chances are,
you’ve either seen or used industrial equipment at
some point in time. Although they cost a lot of
money, they are the way to go with bigger equipment
for getting the job done right the first time.

Nonfiction Idea Generators

Nonfiction Idea Generators

The hardest part of nonfiction writing is finding a subject to write about. Unless you’re a student or a professional writer no one is going to select a topic for you. That means you have to come up with your own themes. If you’re like most writers, your subject matter will be things that interest you. I used the headings listed below to generate ideas for my writing. Hopefully these idea generators will help you become a more productive writer.
HOW DID I SOLVE THAT PROBLEM?: This question can lead to an infinite number of article ideas. The articles that result from it are generally the easiest to market, because many people have the same problem. A writer just starting out could develop a niche by answering this question. Which was how I got started. I was an electronic technician when I published my first article. At the time I was flooded with printed information, catalogs, data sheets, articles, etc. To handle this overflow I developed a filing system. Then I wrote an article about how I solved my problem. The article entitled, “The Ultimate Electronics Reference File” was published in The Electron, a technical journal. A couple months later I was looking for a cheap source of electronic parts, test equipment, etc. (This was before E-Bay.) That thought led me to write “Getting More For Your Electronics Dollar” which appeared in the same publication.
OBJECTS: Observation and/or memory of an object can lead to many ideas. For example, I once owned a multicolored 1955 Chevrolet. With that old car in mind, I wrote an essay entitled “Ode To An Old Car” which was published by a local newspaper.
CHANGES: Some are good and some aren’t, it’s that simple. Either way using this topic, you can create an articles defending or attacking changes. Which I did in “The Advantages Of Flex Time” also published in a local newspaper. I set the piece in a gas station
HOW I DID IT: This is a variation on the above topic. As a woodcarver, I used this statement to detail how I created a certain kind of carving. The resulting article “Carving An Ancient Artifact” was published by Chip Chats Magazine.
OPINIONS/RANTS: Now I’m passionate about a few things in life, though some folks who know me might disagree with this statement. “Nonfiction Idea Generators” is one of the things I’m passionate about, after all I did write this article. But, what I’m not sure of is whether this is an opinion piece or a rant.
READ: Newspapers, magazines, e-zines, cereal boxes, and anything else you can wrap your eyes around. Read to find ideas for future articles. Ask yourself, as you read, “is there anything here I can use? Does this leave me with unanswered questions?” If so, good. That is what you’re looking for. Write down your thoughts and save them along with the article. More about this later.
LISTEN TO YOUR FRIENDS: Sometimes, when friends talk you’ll hear something that sounds like a great subject for an article. An article you know you can write. But before you do, you probably should ask for permission to use the info—if you value the friendship.
SOMETHING THAT MADE YOU LAUGH: Changes are, it’ll make others laugh, too.
SOMETHING YOU’RE CURIOUS ABOUT: One of the best sources of nonfiction ideas can be found by just wondering about something. Example, in a chemistry class studying different types of sugars, I asked the instructor how brown sugar was made. He said he didn’t know and assigned the topic to me. I did the research and wrote a two page report (about 300 words) on the subject.
PUT YOUR DREAMS TO WORK: I had a dream about selling an essay, which I had hadn’t even written at the time of the dream. The essay, now exists, and is part of an e-book I am writing. The essay is about putting my world back together, as a freelance writer, after being laid off from NASA Glenn Research Center, where I worked for sixteen years as a subcontractor. This is not an easy thing to write about; but since the dream, I now have a use for that story.
USE LISTS OF CURRENT MARKETS: Here is a great way to find not only subject matter, but also a market for the piece, should you write it. But before you do a knock-their-socks-off piece for a listing: read the writer’s guidelines, study the publication and its advertising. The advertising will tell you a lot about the publication and its readers.
REVERSE A PUBLISHED ARTICLE’S IDEA: The article you clipped above could serve as an idea generator, if you reverse the argument put forth in the article.
SAVE YOUR ARTICLE IDEAS: When you find an article idea, write it down. Use a single sentence. Put the idea away for a few days. Then go back to it, find a target market. Study the publication you intend to submit it to. What kind of people read this journal? Slant your article for those readers.
Remember, use you Article Idea Generators often and wisely. An idea is a terrible thing to waste. Good Luck.

The Inside of the Recreational Vehicle

The Inside of the Recreational Vehicle

The recreational vehicles and others known as camping cars are becoming very popular. They are going to be a great tool for anyone looking for a great adventure. There will be comfort and space for anyone looking for a great camping trip.

The inside of the recreational vehicle is going to be having a big part in your comfortable stay.

Having a recreational vehicle is going to have a bed, bathroom, smaller kitchen area, and some storage areas.

Having a luxurious recreational vehicle is going to have a living room with a table, TV, kitchen and even a microwave. You can expect a master bedroom as well with a great cozy bed.

The bathrooms are going to have a spacious shower and the toilets are going to be portable. You can detach them and clean the area any time you want.

There are going to be different terms that are involved with the inside of the recreational vehicles. The toilets are going to have a Black water tank that will hold the waster water.

The kitchens are going to have recreational vehicles that have Grey water tanks. They are going to be used to store the water from the shower and the kitchen sinks that is waste.

One of the most important pieces of equipment in the interior of the recreational vehicle is the generators and the converters. The generators can be petrol, propane, or diesel.

They will generate AC voltage and will be useful in dry camping and in the middle of the travel. The converter is going to take the AC voltage from the generator of the campsite hookups and converts it into DC voltage. The voltage is going to be used by the electrical equipments in the RV.

House batteries are going to turn out as another source of DC voltage. The batteries have a smaller capacity of 12 volts DC. The vehicle batteries can charge the batteries.

The inverters will take the DC voltage from the house and convert it into AC. The equipment that needs to have the AC voltage to run will use this type of voltage.

What is White Noise?

What is White Noise?

The best way to explain White Noise is to first look at why it has been given that name. White is used because of the way light works. White light is not an absence of color but is rather a combination of ALL colors. Going along with that same reasoning, White Noise is a combination of ALL frequencies of sound all playing at the same time.
Because white noise is actually a combination of all frequencies it is most likely used as a sound blocker. It is typically used by those in loud city environments or with exceptionally noisy neighbors.
Think of it this way. If you are having a conversation with one person in an empty room you would have no problem understanding that person. Now imagine you are at Sunday family dinner and instead of that one person there are now 20 people around the table all talking at the some time. You would struggle to hear them all so you only pick up one or two voices. Now multiply that times 1,000. Suddenly you have a sea of people all talking at the same time and it is impossible for your brain to “hear” any single voice. Now imagine your noisy neighbor is one of those people. Suddenly you can’t hear them, instead all your brain “hears” is a gentle wave of sound.
When those voices are now frequencies, you get a sound that is a bit like static of a radio.
There are many ways White Noise can be enjoyed. The top two ways are by playing a pre-recorded CD or cassette tape or using one of the many White Noise Generators available. These both accurately produce a static like sound that blocks unwanted noises. In addition, many of these CDs and White Noise Generators have a soothing sound like running water or fans in the foreground. This is meant to further relax and are great to use at bedtime or for just reading a book in the middle of the day.
For more information, visit

Air-Purifiers – Clean The Atmosphere With Top-Quality Purifiers

Air-Purifiers – Clean The Atmosphere With Top-Quality Purifiers

With the increase in pollution levels in the country, the customer’s demands for air-purifiers have been increasing at an alarming rate. The air-purifiers assist in purifying the contaminated air in your home and office thereby freeing the air from unnecessary pollutants. A close research on environmental sciences suggests that the air outside home is far more pure than the air inside the home. So the air-purifiers are known for converting the contaminated air to clean air and provide protection against pollutants.

The modern air purifiers have gained such popularity in the consumer market that they have well mutated the use of air-cleaners. While the air-cleaners clean the air, the air-purifiers absorb dust, pollen, viruses, molds, tobacco smokes, dust mites and other industrial/household chemicals, thereby purifying the air completely. The people who get mostly benefited from air-purifiers are those that suffers from constant allergies, asthma and other respiratory ailments.

Today the air purifiers come in a package containing top-class elements that have increased the usage of air-purifiers to a great extent. The air-purifiers contain HEPA [High Efficiency Particulate Air] filters, ion generators, ozone generators, electrostatic filters, ultraviolet light and other methods that help the air-purifiers to get rid off both large and miniscule particles.

Air purifiers come in various shapes, sizes, and types. Out of these various types of air-purifiers, while some of the air-purifiers draw in air via a fan, cleaning the air and re-releasing it, most of the other air-purifiers work by actually spreading the purified air in the entire room.

Following are the various types of air-purifiers available in the market:

1) Room air-purifiers – room air purifiers have replaced the tabletop units in the 1990s as the leading brand of air-purifiers. These are portable, lightweight and flexible in use. So you can install them almost anywhere in your room.

2) Ion generators – these air-purifiers work by generating charged ions into the atmosphere. The ions get attached to the dirt and chemical-contents in the atmosphere causing them to get attracted to the floors of the houses and get deposited in the grounds. You can then wipe them, mop them or vacuum them away from floors.

3) Whole-house air-purifiers – these air-purifiers serve the purpose of cleaning and purifying the atmosphere of the entire home. These should be basically installed in a central heating, air-conditioning or HVAC systems. The purifier works with the help of a filter that is located in a return air-grille or plenum of the purifier. It’s the fan inside the air-purifier that basically takes in the air, moves it through the filter and releases the clean air out into the atmosphere.

4) HEPA Filtered air-purifiers – HEPA stands for High Efficiency Particulate Air and are made of charcoal. The filter in this air-purifier is placed upwind of a high-velocity fan on the unit, which actually drives the contaminants into the filter attracting tobacco smoke, dust mites and other pollutants. After the air is cleaned inside the purifier, the air is made to circulate in the entire home.

Now that you know the various types of air-purifiers that are available in the market, get the best air-purifier that will perfectly suit your needs and budget.

Ozone Air Purifiers May Cause Permanent Lung Damage

Ozone Air Purifiers May Cause Permanent Lung Damage

Several manufacturers are currently selling ozone generators as air cleaners. The companies manufacturing these devices state they are safe and effective at controlling indoor air pollution; however, for almost a century health professionals and health organizations such as the American Lung Association have challenged these claims.

Sellers of ozone-producing devices often use fanciful terms to describe ozone. It is referred to in such terms as “activated oxygen” or “pure air”, which suggest that ozone is merely a healthy kind of oxygen. However, ozone is a toxic gas which has vastly different chemical and toxicological properties compared to oxygen.

Ozone is a molecule composed of three atoms of oxygen, as opposed to the oxygen we normally breath, which has two. The O2 molecule is stable and nonreactive, whereas the O3 molecule is unstable, tending to dissociate and produce an O2 molecule and one single ionized oxygen atom. This single atom acts as a “free radicle”, that is, it reacts with other nearby substances and changes their chemical composition. It is this ability to combine with other substances that forms the basis of manufacturers’ claims that it binds up organic particles in the air and removes them from circulation.

Unfortunately, the same chemical properties which allow ozone to react with organic material in the environment also give it the ability to react with similar organic material in the body, with potentially harmful health consequences. When inhaled, ozone can damage the lungs, and it is considered an undesirable substance that is a component of smog.

Inhalation of ozone at even low amounts can cause respiratory problems and throat irritation. In addition, ozone worsens chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma and impairs the body’s natural ability to fight respiratory infections.

A generally accepted theory of aging states that the cells of the human body age both due to genetic factors (loss of cell telomeres) and oxidative damage by free radicals. People are encouraged to eat a diet high in antioxidants, and many take antioxidant supplements, precisely to avoid the kind of damage caused by reactive substances such as ozone.

Most people recover from acute exposure to ozone, but according to a 1996 EPA study, long-term exposure may cause permanent lung damage. The EPA regards ozone as an air pollutant and has formulated air quality standards to enable local officials to warn the public when ozone levels in urban areas are excessive. When ozone (and other air pollutants) are high, asthmatics and patients with chronic lung disease are encouraged to stay inside, and healthy people are told to refrain from strenuous outdoor exercise which raises their breathing rate in the toxic air. Since people are advised to avoid ozone in the outdoor environment, it is difficult to understand why anyone would buy a device to purposely produce it within their own homes.

The FDA requires ozone output of indoor medical devices to be less than 0.05 ppm. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires that workers’ exposure to ozone not exceed an average concentration of more than 0.10 ppm for 8 hours. The National Institute of Occupational Safety And Health (NIOSH) recommends an upper limit of 0.10 ppm which should not be exceeded even briefly. EPA’s National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone is a maximum 8 hour average outdoor concentration of 0.08 ppm.

The EPA coined the phrase “good up high -bad nearby” to differentiate between ozone in the upper and lower atmosphere. Stratospheric ozone in the upper atmosphere about 10 to 50km (32,000 to 164,000 feet) above Earth’s surface helps filter out damaging ultraviolet solar radiation. This ozone layer is being decimated by CFC compounds used in refrigerators and coolant systems. After negotiation of an international treaty, the Montreal Protocol, CFC production was sharply limited beginning in 1987 and phased out completely by 1996, and a study by the American Geophysical Union shows the rate of stratospheric ozone destruction slowing.

Ozone Generators are ineffective in controlling indoor air pollution, because scientific evidence shows that at concentrations that do not exceed public health standards, ozone has little potential to remove indoor air contaminants, though it still has the longterm potential to cause lung irritation.

Vendors claim that ozone will render almost every chemical contaminant harmless through a chemical reaction whose only by-products are carbon dioxide, oxygen and water. This is false advertising for several reasons.

First, it takes months to years for ozone to react with many of the chemicals commonly found in indoor air (Boeniger, 1995); so for all practical purposes, this is useless. Also, ozone generators will not remove carbon monoxide (Salls, 1927; Shaughnessy et al., 1994) or formaldehyde (Esswein and Boeniger, 1994).

Secondly, in many cases where the reaction between the pollutants and ozone does occur readily, the by-products are as harmful or irritating as the original pollutants (Weschler et al., 1992a, 1992b, 1996; Zhang and Lioy, 1994).

For instance, a laboratory experiment was conducted which mixed ozone with chemicals from new carpet. Ozone did reduce many of the chemicals, including those which can produce “new carpet” odor. However, the reaction produced a variety of aldehydes, and the total concentration of organic chemicals in the air actually increased (Weschler, et. al., 1992b). Levels of irritating formic acid also rise (Zhang and Lioy, 1994).

Some of the byproducts of ozone reaction are themselves reactive and go on to produce further irritating and corrosive by-products (Weschler and Shields, 1996, 1997a, 1997b). Ozone producing devices turn an indoor environment into a seething chemical flask.

Third, ozone by itself does not remove airborne particles such as pollen and housedust. However, some ozone generators are manufactured with an “ion generator” or “ionizer” in the same unit to disperse negatively (and/or positively) charged ions into the air. These ions attach to particles in the air giving them a negative (or positive) charge so that the particles may attach to nearby surfaces such as walls or furniture, creating an undesirable grimy layer; or attach to one another and settle out of the air. In recent experiments, ionizers proved ineffective in removing dust, tobacco smoke, pollen or fungal spores compared to either high efficiency particle filters or electrostatic precipitators. (Shaughnessy et al., 1994; Pierce, et al., 1996).

Even at concentrations that greatly exceed public health standards, ozone is ineffective at cleaning the air. And unfortunately, there is evidence to suggest that in some circumstances ozone generating devices exceed tolerable output limits. Due to the varying brands and models of these machines, and the different room sizes in which they are eventually used, there can be great variation in the eventual concentration of ozone in the air.

In a study by Shaughnessy and Oatman (1991), a large ozone generator recommended by the manufacturer for spaces “up to 3,000 square feet,” was placed in a 350 square foot room and run at a high setting. The ozone in the room quickly reached hazardous levels of 0.50 to 0.80 ppm, 5-10 times higher than public health limits.

In a 1995 EPA study, several different ozone generators were tested in a home environment, in rooms of various sizes, with doors alternately opened and closed, and with the central ventilation system fan alternately turned on and off. The results showed that some ozone generators, when run at maximum settings in a sealed room, frequently produced hazardous concentrations of 0.20 – 0.30 ppm. When the units were run at lesser settings, with interior doors opened, concentrations generally remained within public health standards.

Due to this wide variation in output and concentration, it is impossible for consumers to know how much ozone is actually in the air they are breathing; in many ordinary circumstances, ozone generators can produce toxic levels. At least one manufacturer is selling machines equipped with ozone sensors that turn the machine on and off in response to ambient ozone levels, in order to maintain levels of this entirely undesirable gas within a”safe” range. The EPA is currently conducting tests to evaluating the reliability of these sensors.

When Will I Ever Use An Electric Generator?

When Will I Ever Use An Electric Generator?

First let’s define an electric generator. In simple and obvious terms it is something that generates electricity. In effect it is its own power plant. Most often it is run by a gasoline engine but it only requires power to spin a magnet inside a coil of wire. So you could harness the power of the wind with a turbine or use the hydroelectric power of moving water.

So basically you need an electric generator to produce electricity apart from what your local power plant is producing (by the way they are just super sized electric generator(s)). What kinds of times would these be? Well say that you don’t have access to the local supply. You are either too far away from a power company and their wires or you are on land that has not been accessed by power from the power plant that is nearby. Lots of times carpenters and other tradesmen in the house building industry will have generators on hand incase the power has not been turned on yet. Other times it is hunters or other outdoor sports enthusiasts that have equipment that can be run with electricity including lights, coffee makers, griddles, TVs, etc.

The last situation that came to mind is when you both have a power company near by and your property is accessed by power lines already. The problem is that the power plant is no longer able to produce power or get power to you for one of several reasons. Often it is weather that has damaged the power lines that supply your zone with power. It could be high winds, ice storms, and other situations that knock down the lines. The plant also may not be able to produce any electricity or enough to supply your needs. This happened just a few years ago in the Midwest when a power company in Canada failed. The caused a cascade of “failures” in which the power companies down the line in the grid could not produce enough to completely back up the original failed plant and people went without power because of it.

So when should you have an electric generator? Well it all depends on how you want to survive when power goes out and how much you would lose by not being able to operate. Hospitals for instance must have generators in order to provide continuous life saving support. Contractors as mentioned before typically have to have generators just to work at certain jobs. If you live further away you would more likely be benefited. If you are just the type that loves to be prepared for anything than you would be happy to fire up the generator when the power went down.

Why Air Purifiers Are All The Rage

Why Air Purifiers Are All The Rage

Air Purifiers

Air Purifiers are all the rage now, everybody has them and everybody sells them. There are Ionic Air Purifiers, regular filter Purifiers and HEPA filter purifiers.

the Journal of the American Medical Association now suggests that the air pollution existing today in the US raises the risk of lung disease to a point where more than half of the US population is breathing unhealthy amounts of air pollution.

More than 50 million Americans seem to be suffering from allergies and more than 20 million battle asthma.

There is such a thing as Sick Building Syndrome, a worldwide phenomenon, when chemical substances used in office construction such as glue, insulating materials, cardboard, and fiberglass are steadily released into the atmosphere from electronic equipment, carpeting, furniture and fittings.

That is why the air inside buildings or residential structures may be many times more polluted than the air outside, according to the EPA.

Because of all these reasons Air Purifiers have become very important. The different types of air purifiers include mechanical purifiers, electronic air purifying systems, hybrid purifiers and gas phase purifiers. Most of these systems remove particles and harmful toxins from the indoor air.

The HEPA Filter is a High Efficiency Particulate Arrested Filter designed to remove 99.97% of all airborne pollutants 0.3 microns or larger from the air that passes through the filter ( including tobacco smoke, household dust and pollen).

There are also filtering technologies that operate by using ozonation. The most popular air purifier on the market today uses ozone. These purifiers actually produce ozone which is an irritant that can worsen asthma and decrease lung function.

The removal of particles from the air is what is measured when the efficiency rate is trying to be achieved.

The fraction of particles that is removed from the indoor air being measured is what determines the amount of efficiency an air purifier possesses.

Air cleaners using mechanical filters or electronic technology can perform particle removal. Mechanical home air purifiers are units that can draw the indoor air through a metal or fibrous filter that is designed to trap the particles.

Because filters have different size pores they are able to catch these particles. is able to catch these particles with its different sized pores. Different types of filters may be pleated , square, round, with different levels of efficiency.

Mechanical filters in general are very efficient in eliminating contaminants from the air as long as they are cleaned regularly. There are 3 diferent types of electronic purifiers:

Electrostatic purifiers pull air into a chamber and charge the particles electrically. The air is then let through wafers which are negative ion generators, give particles a charge and cause them to stick to the nearest solid object.

These purifiers are not as effective as the other electronic or mechanical purifiers because they do not eliminate particles but move them to another location.

Ionizers do the same thing but create ozone which in itself may be bad for your health. Ozone is a lung irritant produced by ion generators and some other electronic air cleaners and ozone generators.

While indirect ozone production is of concern, there is even greater concern with the direct, and purposeful introduction of a lung irritant into indoor air. There is no difference, despite some marketers’ claims, between ozone in smog outdoors and ozone produced by these devices. Repeated exposure to ozone pollution may cause permanent damage to the lungs.

Hybrid air cleaners use both mechanical filters and electronic technology in order to clean the air of particles. Ozone emissions may be present from the use of electrostatic air purifiers and negative ion generators. High levels of ozone may be harmful but cleaning the units as specified by the manufacturer may mitigate the possible bad effects of ozone to some extent.

Efficient Air Purifiers can cost anywhere from $500 to $1500 for a single room and a System to clean a whole house can easily run into the thousands of dollars.