Reversing Mother Nature, Part Three

Reversing Mother Nature, Part Three

We talked to North America’s leading In Situ Leach (ISL) uranium mining engineers, and had them explain exactly how ISL worked. Most of the significant ISL operations in the United States were designed and/or constructed by these engineers. They explained how ISL mining is really just reversing the process of Mother Nature.

CLEANING UP THE PROJECT

Not so fast. Shipping the uranium out of the ISL plant isn’t the final step. The water has to be cleaned up, the property returned to its original condition. If done properly, then the footprint of the ISL uranium operation should have been nearly erased. In an earlier article, “Wyoming Uranium: Now and the Future,” we talked to Pat Drummond at Smith Ranch about this process:

The company is meticulous in restoring the landscape as well. Any restoration work on the surface is called “reclamation.” That can involve farming. “When we start a well field, we have to, by license, remove the topsoil and store it somewhere,” Drummond explained. “When we go back to reclaim the property, we take all the pipes out, we take the houses down, and cut our wells off. It’s all identified. We put an ID marker on the well. In 50 years time, when Farmer Joe comes around and wonders what was there, the state can say, ‘That was a uranium well.’ From the time we’ve stopped mining, we put everything back to normal.”

The one item we did not address at the time was cleaning up the water after the orebody has been mined out. Why is restoring the water back to background important? “In the mining process, you’re basically elevating sulfate,” explained Anthony. “You’re also elevating calcium because you’re lowering the pH a little bit, down to 6.5 to 7. Because you run it across the ion exchange circuits, you get a little leakage of chlorides into the lixiviant.” Subsequently, the water will have sulfate, chloride, calcium and bicarbonate circulating within it. “When you add carbon dioxide, you’re forming bicarbonate,” Anthony noted. “These are the major ion groups you are elevating during the mining process.” He also added that in some projects, you may get arsenic, vanadium and/or selenium. “They all go into the solution so that at the end of your mining process, these ions will be elevated above their baseline values.” The water will need to undergo a purification process to return them back to a quality consistent with baseline values.”

What does the ISL operator do with the water once the facility has mined out the uranium? There are three options, which we discussed with Glenn Catchpole, who has also set up previous ISL operations. In 1996, Catchpole was the General Manager and Managing Director of the Inkai uranium solution mining project in Kazakhstan. He is currently the Chief Executive of Uranerz Energy. “Here’s my order of priority: If you have a receiver formation for deep disposal on your project, that’s my first choice.” Sometimes, a project may not have access to a deep disposal aquifer, warned Catchpole.

The water is sent down the receiver formation, down about 4000 feet. “You’re usually sending this water to a formation that is very briny, a poorer quality than what you’re sending down,” Anthony pointed out. Another option, according to Catchpole, would be operations ponds, or evaporating ponds, where the water is evaporated. A third option is “land applied.” Catchpole explained this was for land application. “You take your waste stream, you treat it to remove the certain level of impurities, according to the government requirement, and then you’re allowed to disperse it on the land surface, as if you were irrigating.” When applied to the land, it is soaking into the land. “It’s growing grass, and it’s going into the groundwater system,” concluded Catchpole, “Whatever water quality standard they allow for you to put that water in the land, they want to ensure it doesn’t accumulate some particular chemical over time that is going to build up and contaminate the land.”

Generally, during the restoration process, the water is circulated through the barren orebody about eight times. It’s another instance of pore volumes – eight more times through the sandstone formation. Anthony explained, “Normally, the first pore volume is evacuated and disposed of via a disposal well.” But he warned, “This will cause an inflow of surrounding native water back into the mine zone. The resulting water is pumped to the surface and processed through a reverse osmosis unit.” Anthony compared this to the desalination of seawater. “The reverse osmosis equipment acts like an ‘ion filter,’ allowing pure water to pass through a membrane and filtering out ions of sulfate, calcium, uranium, bicarbonate and so forth,” Anthony explained.

Two streams of water are produced by the reverse osmosis unit. One stream is called “product water,” and is normally consistent with drinking water quality. The smaller stream of water is called “brine.” It contains, according to Anthony, “95 percent of all the dissolved ions that were in solution.” He said, “The brine is disposed down a deep well into an underground formation, which is typically not suitable for any use.”

CONCLUSION

For all the lip service and media attention paid to the environmental movement in terms of financial support, recognition and respect, it is the ISL miner who cares more about the environment, about preserving Mother Nature. Environmentalists remain ignorant of, or care not to publicize, the dangers of coal-fired electrical generation. Mining and burning coal to generate power for industry and residential electricity poses a greater threat to Mother Nature than ISL mining and nuclear power-generated electricity. No more evident a case in point is New Mexico, where the Navajo Nation “banned” uranium mining, because their president was misled by environmentalists in believing ISL uranium mining could pose a threat to groundwater. At the same time, the Navajo Nation enjoys over $100 million in coal royalties each year, as their air is polluted by carcinogens filling their air from coal mining in the San Juan Basin and coal-fired plants, which produce most of their electricity. It is time for the world’s environmentalist movements to wake up and smell the air they are breathing.

Unfortunately, ISL uranium mining will not replace conventional uranium mining in many deposits across the world. According to the World Nuclear Association, ISL mining accounted for 21 percent of worldwide uranium mining in 2004. “The overriding constraint of ISL is the technology is only applicable to selected uranium deposits,” Stover cautioned. “It’s those deposits wherein the uranium ore resides in a permeable environment, where you can flow water through the deposit and where you can bring the dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide into contact with the uranium.” Stover explained that, during the evolution of ISL mining, a number of projects failed because the uranium was associated with organic material, was not accessible to the leaching solution, or the uranium was tied up in clays or shale-like material. “They were not able to flow fluid through it,” explained Stover. “The key issue at the onset is a careful characterization of the host environment in which the uranium exists.”

The key advantage to ISL is the far lower capital costs to start up a project, compared to the hundreds of millions required for a conventional mining and mill complex. For example, UR-Energy’s William Boberg and Uranerz Energy’s Glenn Catchpole both believe they can install an ISL operation on their Wyoming properties for as little as $10 million. Labor costs are also less. Doug Norris pointed out, “In its heyday, the Highland mine probably had 4,000 working in it.” By comparison, Cameco’s Smith-Highland ranch in Wyoming may soon ramp up to nearly 100 employees. “We’re talking about installing a centralized water treatment plant supported by a large number of water wells, typically completed with PVC,” Stover explained. “That’s in contrast with conventional mining, where you have extensive earth moving, in the case of an open pit or extensive underground workings, and a more complicated, much larger processing plant.”

In terms of environmental impact, ISL offers something sensible to the environmentalists. “ISL is much less intrusive, and it is short lived,” Stover said, echoing the sentiments of all who have been involved in this type of uranium mining. “It’s acceptance by the general public is much more favorable,” he concluded.

What does the future hold for ISL uranium mining in the United States? “Up until 2004, prices were flat,” Norris pointed out. “The economic picture has just now switched to where mines can start coming on again, but it does take years to properly define where the ore is. It takes a lot of geologic drilling and time to decipher it. Then there are the regulatory requirements, and that can take several years. Even if everybody reacted right now to what’s out there, it would still be several years, upwards of five years, before production jumped from its existing rate to 10 to 20 million pounds at the most.”

The Little Web Hosting Service That Shouldn’t

The Little Web Hosting Service That Shouldn’t

Is bigger better?

Everyone has their own opinion on that, including web hosting companies. They say it is. That’s why when you look at their hosting packages, the feature list goes on and on and on. You’d think they cover their customers in gold with how much they apparently give away. Mail accounts, shopping carts, disk space, diesel generators – the works! But wait, along with that huge list of items you get, comes that huge price. Maybe you think you need all that stuff, though, so the price is justified. I mean why else would they include all this stuff if you didn’t actually need it, right? You might not like the answer. The unfortunate but TRUE answer is that they believe the more features you see, the more likely you are to PURCHASE.

How do you fight back? By actually evaluating what it is they offer and figuring out if you’ll actually NEED it. Why pay for something you won’t use? If you’re going to do that then, please – I need a new pair of shoes!

What you DON’T need.
Ok, let’s look at some of the commonly useless items found on these lists.

Bandwidth. Basically that means “action” or “traffic”. How much “action” do you think your site is going to get per month? Here’s a great tip: if this is your first time, start out expecting less traffic. Most companies can give you that upgrade if you need it with a click of the button. Most people, though, are paying for bandwidth they NEVER use.

SSL. It stands for “Secure Sockets Layer” and it means you have a secure server. It’s a great thing to have IF you plan to accept credit card payments. You may also see shopping cart software, also useful if you have an Internet business. However, there are well over a billion Internet pages and the vast majority of them are not there to accept payments. Most of the Internet is simply about free information – giving it out and searching for it. Again, don’t pay for something you simply don’t need.

Search Engine Submissions. Sounds great, except most of the search engines are free to be a part of anyway. And if you are really looking to be ranked in the top 10 or 20, you’re going to need to hire a professional. Don’t think that because it says “free search engine submissions” that it will help your site rank higher. That’s a business of its own.

Scripts. A script is a type of computer language like ASP, JSP, PHP, etc… If you could just pick the ones that you plan to use, that would be nice. But -whether you use 1, 2, or 4 – you’re going to pay for all 12 every month. It is more wasted money that most people just don’t pay attention to.

Catch-all Email accounts. Here’s how they work: I want to spam your website so I type in webhost@yourdomain.com. You think you won’t receive my spam email because you never created an account called “webhost”. Well, if you DIDN’T have a catch-all email account, you wouldn’t get my spam, but since you do have a catch-all email account – who knows what I can dump into that bin. If someone can’t get even the first part of your email address correct, do you really want to receive that email?

Be Smart.
This small list is just a part of the actual list. The full list of useless material you pay for would at least double this one. Imagine how that affects your bill. So, as you are shopping around for your web host, first understand what you NEED and then find a trusted company that matches that. Because anything else is just flushing your money away.

Battery Life – Expectations

Battery Life – Expectations

The life of a battery bloc can vary dramatically especially when used in a UPS System , the manufacturer will always state the expected life of a battery bloc on the proviso that it has a pure dc float voltage applied to it and that the ambient temperature is restricted to 20 ° C. If these parameters are adhered to, one can expect to achieve the 5 years life from a 3 – 5 year design life battery or the 10 years of a 7 – 10 year design life battery bloc, omitting manufacturing failures.

Unfortunately we do not live in a perfect world and as a result there are limitations applied to the battery bloc, one is the ambient temperature, although a number of rack-mounted UPS systems may luxuriate in ambient temperatures of 20 ° C or less because of the demands of the IT equipment, due to the nature of the design of the UPS there is generally insufficient space to achieve a significant airflow round the battery blocs and as a result they will fail the UPS system battery test after a mere 2 – 3 years.

In this situation the requirements of Uninterruptible power supplies and their installation mean that UPS maintenance is unlikely to detect the failure of the battery pack, often due to the fact that after a very short period of time the UPS system is hidden in a mass of communication cables. The most positive approach under these circumstances is to rigorously implement a two-year replacement battery programme to ensure the integrity of the backup UPS system. This also applies to Generators. Yes, even diesel generators require batteries to supply the current to start.

Flat or failed batteries render the generator useless. Call outs to such problems are chargeable and yet can be avoided by a regular maintenance regime.

In larger UPS systems the problems arising are often due to location; no-one wants the local radiated noise of Uninterruptible power supplies to impinge on their working environment and, as a result the uninterruptible power supply will be located in a basement perhaps, where the ambient temperature is not ideal for batteries and maybe the saying,” Out of sight is Out of mind,” is true. In the case of battery life, ignorance is not bliss. Batteries will fail the question is whether you are prepared or just waiting for it to happen,

As a result of the location the ambient temperature can often exceed 25 – 30 ° C and this potentially could decrease the expected life of the battery. For, prolonged use at 30 ° of VRLA (valve regulated lead acid) batteries the expected life can decrease by 50%, if the ambient temperature is raised to 40 ° C the life of the battery will fall by another 50%. Therefore at an ambient temperature of 40 ° C the expected operating life of a 7 – 10 year life battery has fallen to 1.75 – 2.5 years!

In this case even UPS maintenance will not save the battery, all it can do is to report on the rapid deterioration of the battery bloc.

Fortunately these extremes covered by these scenarios are not too common but they highlight the need to record the operating conditions by regular UPS maintenance and to ensure that there is an emergency 24/7 callout cover in place in the event of the unexpected happening. Be prepared!

Colloidal Silver Generators

Colloidal Silver Generators

That silver is an effective antimicrobial agent cannot be denied. For thousands of years, silver has been used as a germ-fighting agent, utilized as decontaminant in water, preservative in place of refrigerators, and all-around disinfectant for lining cooking utensils and drinking vessels and coating surgical instruments.

A different and more “purified” form of silver available in the market today is colloidal silver. It consists of tiny silver particles that are suspended in a liquid base. This state of suspension is created because of the electrical impulses introduced by colloidal silver generators in a process called “electromagnetism.”

Basically, colloidal silver generators produce electrical charges which cause a magnetic reaction within the liquid base, causing the silver particles to become electrically-charged and thus be able to resist the normal action of gravity. As a result, these silver particles remain suspended in the water, making them easy for the body to absorb.

According to scientific experts, much of the significant fluids in the body, such as blood and lymphatic fluids, are actually colloids. That is, they are composed of tiny particles of nutrients, vitamins, and minerals suspended in liquid. This is so because the body can absorb nutrients, vitamins, and minerals when they are in a suspended state.

This discovery has led proponents of colloidal silver to believe that the best form of silver for the body to get the most benefit of should be colloidal. It should be noted, however, that there is yet no empirical evidence to prove the benefits of silver colloids produced from colloidal silver generators. At the very least, they are sold only as supplement and any therapeutic or medicinal claims they have are made without FDA-approval.

Nevertheless, it bears saying that there are many silver products available that have already gained the approval of the Food and Drug Administration. One example is a type of dressing for wounds which delivers ionic silver into the damaged tissue cells in order to promote healing and at the same time keep away infections. Once more concrete research is done on the health benefits of colloidal silver, it should not be long before this product, too, will attain FDA approval.

Meanwhile, there is no law prohibiting the use of colloidal silver products or colloidal silver generators to create your own colloidal silver solution. The FDA forbids the sale of silver colloids as over-the-counter drugs but they may be bought as dietary supplements. Unfortunately, some products available in the market today are inferior in terms of quality. That is, they contain very low concentrations of silver particles. Note that it is the silver particles that have antimicrobial properties. What’s more, these products are usually very expensive.

As an alternative, you can produce your own colloidal silver solution, using only a few pieces of pure silver wire (0.999%), batteries, connecting wires, and distilled water. These are all the materials you need to create your own colloidal silver generators.

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Generators – What You Need to Know

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Generators – What You Need to Know

Are you bothered with the rising of gas prices? Well, a lot of motorists are and they definitely want to find an alternative fuel that is less costly. Car owners are trying really hard to reduce their gas expenses but to no avail. Before you trade your car for a so-called hybrid car, why not try building a hydrogen fuel cell generator. But before anything else, you need to know some things about it.

If you think that fuel cell generators are science fiction, you’re quite wrong. Well, who would immediately believe that an automobile will run using water? Today, nothing is impossible and you’ve got our advanced technology to thank. A lot of developments have taken place as well as new discoveries. Fuel cell generators are science reality. True enough, if you simply put water in your car’s tank, it wouldn’t run. But with the aid of a fuel cell generator, your car can be provided the needed power.

You will still be using gasoline even if you already have a fuel cell generator in your car. Water is made up of hydrogen and oxygen. The fuel cell generators will then extract the needed energy from the hydrogen found in water. Your car will still run even if you run out of gas.

Before you had the fuel cell, you’re using 100% gas. Once the fuel cell generators are installed in the car, you will only be using around 60% of gasoline and the other 40% car power will come from the extracted hydrogen. Try to imagine driving for longer hours without actually refueling at the gas station; compute how much money you can save.

At present, hydrogen powered cars are still being manufactured and completed; so cars today that use alternative hydrogen fuel will not completely run. Only a portion of hydrogen power helps run your car engine. A certain process called electrolysis takes place in the fuel cell generator. This process will then supplement your car’s gas. The process happens continuously inside the cells and so there is enough hydrogen to power your car.

Perhaps you’re attention is already caught. Now, a great thing about hydrogen fuel cell generators is that you can build it yourself. You don’t need to invest a huge amount of money. You can even build the fuel cell over the weekend. A single fuel cell generator roughly costs $150. If you purchase the kit for a single cell generator, it includes the instructions to build the fuel cell.

The instructions are not hard to understand since they are written step by step. Even DIY beginners can build a fuel cell generator. As car owner, you already know how to maintain the car’s good condition. Therefore, building a hydrogen system in your car will surely be not that difficult.

Hydrogen fuel cell generators are not myths. It is already a proven fact and a lot of car owners are already benefiting from hydrogen powered vehicles. In every project, there is a limitation and that is also true with fuel cells but at least, you can cut down your gasoline expenses.

With the rising prices of almost every commodity in the market, you will need all the help to save some money. Get a fuel cell kit now and build your very own hydrogen fuel cell generator.

Why Air Cooler Hire Is So Important When You Take Management Decisions

Why Air Cooler Hire Is So Important When You Take Management Decisions

This article describes how you can take advantage of alternatives available when you start something new and how substitutes are used when you cannot get what you really would like to have. It also tells you how to take management decision considering a hypothetical decision of taking air coolers on hire.

Air Conditioners Are Required During Hot Climate

Air conditioners are required at each office in USA not just to keep a good relation with employees but also to increase productivity. Out side US when you start the project, you do not have electricity and the portable generators provided at start would not be able to provide electricity required for air conditioners, as they require large power to operate it. Certain places outside USA the air conditioners may not be available from market on demand.

Air Coolers Or Heaters Are Good Substitute

The air coolers are good substitute for air conditioners during hot climate and air coolers would reduce the temperature by up to 30Deg F on a favorable day. The Air heaters may used when the work is on in the cold countries. You would rather require air conditioner than air heaters in most countries of world.

When Air Coolers Are Not Available Easily

The situation we are discussing may not be directly connected to us in USA, but you might be in situation of a manager who has to take decision and answer tough questions. Some of them may be as follows. When even the air coolers are not available, and the requirements are urgent, what is the solution? The solution is of course to hire them. But hire at what cost? Consider the alternatives

– Will it be safe to work without it?
– Will it affect productivity? If yes, in what way and to what extent
– How will it affect production?
– What are costs of reduction of production
– Will just the fans do if the aim is to reduce temperature?

Consider The Cost Of Hot Hiring The Air Coolers

In management parlance, this is called opportunity cost. What are the costs of not providing air coolers?Will the worker’s productivity reduce? If so, by how much? If the immediate costs of hiring of air coolers are equal to or more than the cost of loss of productivity, then it is worth hiring the air coolers. The side benefit of providing the air coolers may be an increase cost of productivity of air coolers.

The marginal higher cost of providing may even be offset by increased production levels.It is a management decision really. It is not a decision of cost of hiring the air coolers. It is about alternative, and about how to take management decisions.

Generator Field Study

Generator Field Study

Generators are essential for fieldwork done by consultants often exposed to remote areas where electricity is not available.
A Goscor Engines customer recently did an intensive study to establish which generators are suitable for use with sensitive equipment such as the Cedip product range where spike and dips in power supply are very unhealthy for the equipment used.
Prior to doing the comparative study the customer, working in the field as a logistics consultant, used battery supplies as equipment power source. He found battery supply as power source extremely limiting due to limited battery life.
Subsequently the consultant tried using UPS as a power supply especially when he did demonstration work but also found that time is a factor as the UPS also ran out of power, often at crucial points during a demonstration.
Traditional generators were not suitable either as dips and spikes occurs damaging the sensitive equipment used during demonstrations.
New generation (Inverter technology) generators were therefore considered as it includes power saving mode, are capable of delivering increased power on demand and are also equipped with a built in inverter circuit that protects sensitive electronics. These generators also have a 12V output, which is great especially when batteries have to be charged. Light-weight, compact in size and low noise levels are also an advantage especially when field demonstrations are done.
“Based on price and performance if I was looking for a system to operate my field set-up, I would opt for the Robin Subaru Generator. I did a demo for our Department of Environmental Affairs (Marine and Coastal Management – Anti-poaching task force) using the Robin, and it performed beautifully” said the client.
The set-up included:
1 x JADE LR
1 x pc (laptop)
1 x 21″ LCD TV screen
1 x Video recorder
1 x light fitting
Robin Subaru R1700i generator
The generator did not switch up to provide additional power. It remained in low power mode, thus providing more than 5 hours continuous use with no need to top up the petrol. The demonstration took place less than 10 meters from the generator, and could hardly be heard above the conversation level.
The only advantage of the more expensive generators, is that if you require a higher power rating than offered by the single generator, you can purchase an optional extension that allows you to connect two generators of the same model and rating in parallel, thus putting out double the power rating of a single generator. The output remains clean, spike-free and in phase.

Portable Generator Safety Tips

Portable Generator Safety Tips

Portable generators are great to have when the power goes out. But when using a generator, there are three dangers that you need to know about in order to avoid them. They are electric shock, Carbon Monoxide poisoning, and fire.

When using a generator there is a chance of getting electrocuted. Make sure to keep your generator dry and if it rainy or wet don’t use. Operate your generator on a dry surface under an open, roof-like unit. Don’t touch the generator unless your hands are dry.

Carbon Monoxide (CO) poisoning occurs when you inhale your generators toxic exhaust. Most important, is to never use a generator indoors. This includes: inside your home, garage, basement, crawl space or any partial or enclosed area which is connected to your living space. Using a fan, or opening windows and doors is not enough to prevent CO build-up.

Finally, preventing fires while using your portable generator can be done easily. Propane, gasoline, kerosene, and any other flammable liquids should be brought outside for storage. All containers should be properly labeled.

Don’t store fuel near any fuel burning appliance like a gas water heater. Invisible fumes can move along the ground if fuel is spilled. It can then be lit by the appliance’s pilot light. Lastly, turn your generator off and wait for it to cool down before refueling. Spilt fuel could ignite on a hot engine.